Area Surveys & Measurement Reports
What are area surveys and referencing reports?
Area surveys and referencing reports are typically prepared by land surveyors and are used to determine and document the precise measurements, boundaries, and features of a particular area of land. These reports are commonly required for various purposes, including land development, property transactions, construction projects, and legal disputes.
Area surveys involve the physical measurement of a piece of land using specialised surveying instruments and techniques. Surveyors use equipment such as total stations, GPS receivers, and laser scanners to accurately measure distances, angles, and elevations on the ground. They may also employ aerial surveying techniques using drones or aircraft for larger areas.
The collected data is then processed, analysed, and compiled into an area survey report This report provides a detailed description of the land’s boundaries, dimensions, topography, and any other relevant features. It may include maps, plans, and diagrams that illustrate the surveyed area, along with numerical data and written descriptions.
Referencing reports, on the other hand, focus on establishing, the relationship between a specific piece of land and adjacent properties or known reference points. These reports help identify the exact location of a property within a larger geographical context. They typically involve researching and analysing land records, historical maps, legal descriptions, and other relevant documents to establish the boundaries and spatial relationships of the surveyed land.
Referencing reports often include information about adjoining properties, easements, rights of way, encroachments, and other factors that may impact the surveyed area. These reports are crucial for ensuring accurate land ownership, resolving property disputes, and providing a comprehensive understanding of the land’s context and history.
Overall, area surveys and referencing reports play a vital role in land management, real estate transactions, urban planning, and various other fields that require precise information about the physical characteristics and legal aspects of a piece of land.
Area Measurement Surveys
Area measurement surveys, also known as land or property surveys, are conducted to determine the precise area or size of a piece of land. These surveys are important for various purposes including property transactions, land development, zoning compliance, and resource management.
During an area measurement survey, a land surveyor uses specialised equipment and techniques to accurately measure the boundaries of the land and calculate its area. The surveyor may use tools such as total stations, GPS receivers, or laser scanners to take measurements on the ground. In some cases, aerial surveying techniques using drones or aircraft may be employed for larger or inaccessible areas.
The surveyor establishes the boundaries of the land by conducting field work, which involves physically locating and marking the boundary points. This may include placing markers or survey monuments at specific locations, along the boundaries. The surveyor may also take into account any legal descriptions, deed records, or historical information related to the property to ensure accurate measurements and boundary determination.
Once the fieldwork is completed, the surveyor processes the collected data and preforms calculations to determine the area of land accurately. The area measurement survey report is then prepared, which includes detailed information about the boundaries, dimensions, and area of the surveyed land. This report may also include maps, and diagrams, and legal descriptions to illustrate the survey results.
Area measurement surveys are essential for various stakeholders involved in land-related activities. For example, prospective buyers or sellers of a property rely on accurate area measurements to determine fair market value and negotiate transactions. Developers and planners use these surveys to access the suitability of land for construction projects and ensure compliance with zoning regulations. Government agencies and resource management organisations may require area surveys to manage and allocate land resources effectively.
In summary, area measurement surveys are conducted to determine the precise area of a prices of land and provide accurate information about its boundaries. These surveys play a crucial role in land management, property transactions, and various other activities that require precise knowledge of land size and boundaries.
Net and Gross Internal Area Surveys and Reports
Net and gross internal area surveys and reports are conducted to determine and document the usable floor space within a building or structure. These surveys provide valuable information about the size and layout of the internal areas, which is important for various purposes such as space planning, leasing, valuation, and compliance with building regulations.
Net Internal Area (NIA) refers to the total usable floor area within a building, excluding any non-habitable spaces such as corridors, stairwells, mechanical rooms, and walls. NIA represents the actual space available for occupancy, use or lease within the building.
During a net internal area survey, a surveyor measures the internal dimensions of each room or area within a building, taking into account the internal walls and features. They typically use measuring tapes or laser distance meters to obtain accurate measurements. The collected measurements are then used to calculate the internal area of the building.
Gross Internal Area (GIA), on the other hand, includes all the useable floor spaces within a building, including the NIA as well as the non-habitable spaces such as corridors, stairwells, and mechanical rooms. GIA represents the total floor area contained within the building’s perimeter walls.
In a gross internal area survey, the surveyor measures the internal dimensions of all areas, including both usable and non-usable spaces. This includes the thickness of walls, partitions, and other features that may impact the total floor area. The measurements are then used to calculate the total gross internal area of the building.
The survey results are typically compiled into a report that gives detailed information about the measured areas, calculations, and floor plans. The report may also include graphical representations, such as floor plan drawings or diagrams, to illustrate the layout and dimensions of the usable floor space within a building.
NIA surveys, or Net Internal Area surveys, are conducted to determine the usable floor space within a building, excluding non-habitable areas such as corridors, stairwells, and mechanical rooms. These surveys are important for various purposes, including space planning, leasing, valuation, and compliance with building regulations.
During NIA surveys, a surveyor measures the internal dimensions of each room or area within the building. They typically use measurements tapes or laser distances meters to obtain accurate measurements of the floor areas. The surveyor takes into account the internal walls and features to determine the net usable area of each space.
The measurements collected during the survey are used to calculate the total net area of the building. This calculation involves summing up the areas of all the usable spaces within the building, while excluding non-habitable building areas. The NIA represents the actual floor space available for occupancy, use, or lease within the building.
The results of the NIA survey are typically compiled into a report. This report provides detailed information about the measured areas, calculations, and floor plans. It may include a breakdown of the net internal areas for each room or space within the building. Additionally, the report may contain graphical representations, such as floor plan drawings or diagrams, to illustrate the layout and dimensions of the internal areas.
NIA surveys are valuable for various stakeholders involved in the management, utilizations, or valuation of a building. Property owners, real estate agents, developers, and tenants rely on NIA information for lease negotiations, space planning, and understanding the usable area of a property. Additionally, NIA surveys are often required to comply with building regulations and standards that dictate the minimum floor area requirements for different types of spaces.
Overall, NIA surveys provide essential information about the net usable floor space within a building, allowing stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding space utilisation, leasing, and compliance with regulations.
What is NIA Survey and What is it used for?
A Net Internal Area (Nia) survey is a type of survey conducted to measure and determine the usable floor space within a building, excluding non-habitable areas such as corridors, stairwells, and mechanical rooms. The primary purpose of an NIA survey is to provide an accurate assessment of the actual floor space available for occupancy, use, or lease within a building.
During an NIA survey, a surveyor measures the internal dimensions of each room or area within the building. This typically involves measuring a length and width of each space, taking into account any internal walls, columns, or features that may affect the usable floor area. The surveyor may use measuring tapes, laser distance meters, or other specialised tools to obtain measurements.
The collected measurements are then used to calculate the total NIA of the building. The calculation involves summing up the areas of all the usable spaces while excluding non-habitable areas. The resulting NIA represents the net internal floor space available for various activities such as office work, commercial use, or other specific purposes.
NIA surveys are used for a variety of purposes, including:
- Space Planning: NIA surveys provide accurate information about the usable floor space, enabling efficient space planning and layout design within a building. This is crucial for optimising the use of available space and ensuring it meets the specific requirements of tenants or occupants.
- Lease Negotiations: NIA surveys help property owners, real estate agents, and tenants accurately determine the rentable or leasable area of a building. The NIA data serves as a basis for lease negotiations and rent calculations, as tenants are typically charged based on the usable area they occupy.
- Valuation: NIA surveys provide important data for property valuation purposes. The net internal floor area is a significant factor in determining the market value of a building, especially for commercial properties where rental income is a key component of valuation.
- Building regulations: NIA surveys are often required to comply with building regulations and codes. These regulations specify minimum floor area requirements for different types of spaces, such as offices, retail areas, or residential units. NIA surveys ensure that buildings meet the necessary standards and guidelines.
- Property Management: NIA surveys assist property managers in effectively managing the available space within a building. The information gathered from the survey helps in allocating spaces, assessing occupancy rates, and determining the potential for additional development or expansion.
Overall, NIA surveys provide crucial information about the net usable floor space within a building, enabling stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding space utilization, leasing, valuation, and compliance with regulations.
What is a GIA Survey and What is it used for?
A Gross Internal Area (GIA) survey is a type of survey conducted to measure and determine the total usable floor space within a building, including both the net usable areas and non-habitable spaces such as corridors, stairwells, and mechanical rooms. The primary purpose of a GIA survey is to provide an accurate assessment of the total floor area contained within the building’s perimeter walls.
During a GIA survey, a surveyor measures the internal dimensions of all areas within the building, including both usable and non-usable spaces. This involves measuring the length and width of each room or area, considering the internal walls, columns, and other features that may impact the total floor area. The surveyor may use measuring tapes, laser distance meters, or other specialised tools to obtain precises measurements.
The collected measurements are then used to calculate the total GIA of the building. The calculation involves summing up the areas of all the measured spaces, including the net internal areas and non-habitable areas. The resulting GIA represents the total floor area contained within the building’s perimeter walls.
GIA surveys are used for various purposes, including:
- Property Valuation: GIA surveys provide essential information for property valuation. The total floor area, including both usable and non-usable spaces, is a crucial factor in determining the market value of a building. Valuers and appraisers use GIA data to assess the worth of a property, especially in commercial and residential real estate markets.
- Space Planning and Design: GIA surveys help architects, designers, and space planners in creating efficient layouts and designs for buildings. By knowing the total internal area, including non-usable spaces, they can optimise the utilisation of available space, plan circulation routs, and allocate areas for different functions within the building.
- Compliance with Regulations: GIA surveys are often required to comply with building regulations and standards. These regulations may specify minimum floor area requirements for different types of space, ensuring that buildings meet the necessary legal guidelines. GIA data helps in demonstrating compliance with these regulations.
- Lease Negotiations: GIA surveys provide accurate information for lease negotiations and rent calculations. Property owners, real estate agents, and tenants rely on GIA data to determine the rentable or leasable area within a building. Rent calculations and lease terms are often based on the total floor area, including both usable and non-usable spaces.
- Property Management: GIA surveys assist property managers in effectively managing the entire floor area within a building. They provide comprehensive information about the internal spaces, allowing managers to assess occupancy rates, maintenance activities, and make informed decisions regarding space utilisation.
In summary, GIA surveys provide crucial information about the total usable floor space within a building, including both net internal areas and non-usable spaces. They are used for property valuation, space planning, compliance with regulations, lease negotiations, and property management. GIA data helps stakeholders make informed decisions and ensure efficient utilisation of building space.
RICS 6th Code of Measuring Practice.
The RICS 6th Code of Measuring Practice, published by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), is a professional standard that provides guidelines for measuring and calculating the size and dimensions of buildings. The code is primarily used in the United Kingdom and is applicable to various sectors, including real estate, construction, property management, and valuation.
The 6th Code of Measuring Practice serves as a comprehensive framework for consistent and accurate measurement practices within the industry. It covers various aspects of building measurement, including terminology, measurement methodologies, and standards for different types of properties.
Key features and topics covered in the RICS 6TH Code of Measuring Practice include:
- Definitions and Terminology: The code provides standardized definitions and Terminology to ensure consistent understanding and communication of measurement-related terms within the industry. It clarifies key concepts such as Gross Internal Area (GIA), Net Internal Area (NIA), Gross External Area (GEA), and other measurement terms commonly used in property transactions and valuation.
- Measurement Methodologies: The code outlines detailed measurement methodologies for different types of properties, including residential, commercial, industrial, and mixed-use buildings. It provides guidance on how to measure various areas, such as floor areas, ceiling heights, circulation spaces and common areas.
- Measurement Techniques: The code offers guidance on specific measurement techniques and tools to be used during building measurement. This includes recommendations on equipment, such as measuring tapes, laser distance meters, or laser scanning technology, to ensure accurate and reliable measurements.
- Categories of Space: The code categorises different types of spaces within a building and provides specific guidance on how to measure each category. This includes areas such as offices, kitchens, storage spaces, circulation areas and mechanical rooms.
- Reporting and Documentation: The code provides guidance on how to document and report measurement data accurately. It covers aspects such as floor plans, area schedules, and the inclusion of necessary information for clear and transparent reporting.
The RICS 6th Code of Measuring Practice is an important reference document for professionals involved in the measurement, valuation, and management of buildings. It promotes consistency, accuracy, and transparency in building measurement practices, ensuring that stakeholders have a common understanding of the size and dimensions of properties.
It’s worth noting that the RICS periodically updates its codes and standards to reflect changes in industry practices and advancements in technology. Therefore, it is essential to consult the most recent version of the RICS Code of Measuring Practice for the most up to date guidelines and standards.
Gross External Area Surveys
Gross External Area (GEA) surveys are conducted to measure and determine the total floor area of a building, including all external walls. The GEA includes both the internal usable space and the thickness of external walls, providing a comprehensive measurement of the building’s total footprint.
During a GEA survey, a surveyor measures the external dimensions of the building, including the length, width, and height of external walls. This involves measuring the external surfaces the walls, excluding any projections such as balconies, canopies, or external stairs. The surveyor may use measuring tapes, laser distance meters, or other tools to obtain accurate measurements.
The collected measurements are then used to calculate the total GEA of the building. The calculation includes summing up the areas of all the floors, including the external walls/ The resulting GEA represents the total floor area contained within the external boundaries of the building.
GEA surveys are used for various purposes, including:
- Valuation: GEA surveys provide crucial data for property valuation. The total floor area, including the external walls, is a significant factor in determining the market value of a building. Valuers and appraisers use GEA information to assess the worth of the property, especially in commercial and residential real estate markets.
- Planning and Development: GEA surveys assist in planning and development processes. The GEA data helps architects, designers, and developers in assessing the sites capacity, determining the allowable floor area, and complying with planning regulations and restrictions.
- Building Regulations: GEA surveys ensure compliance with building regulations that stipulate maximum allowable floor areas for construction projects. By measuring GEA, builders and developers can ensure adherence to the prescribed limits.
- Lease Agreements: GEA surveys provide information for lease agreements and rent calculations. Landlords and tenants may refer to GEA data to determine the rentable or leasable area of a building, which can influence lease terms and rental costs.
- Asset Management: GEA surveys assist property managers in effectively managing the overall size and space of a building. The data can be used to assess occupancy rates, allocate resources, plan maintenance activities, and make informed decisions regarding space utilisation.
GEA surveys provide a comprehensive measurement of a building’s floor area, including the external walls, and are used by various stakeholders in the real estate and construction industries. They play a crucial role in property valuation, planning, compliance with regulations, lease agreements, and asset management.
Retail Zoning (ITZA)
Retail Zoning, specifically Inferred Total Zone Area (ITZA), is a concept used in the retail industry to measure and allocate space within a retail store based on its commercial zoning. ITZA is a method of calculating the usable sales floor area within a store, taking into account the specific merchandising zones and departments.
The ITZA approach recognises that different zones or departments within a retail store have varying sales densities and profitability. By allocating space based on these factors, retailers can optimize the use of their floor area and improve overall store performance.
Here’s an overview of how ITZA works:
- Zoning Analysis: The first step in determining ITZA is analyse the different merchandising zones or departments within the store. This typically involves categorizing the store into various sections, such as apparel, electronics, home goods, or cosmetics. The sales performance and profitability of each zone are assessed to understand their contribution to the overall revenue.
- Space Allocation: Once the zoning analysis is complete, the next step is to allocate space based on the sales density and profitability of each zone. Higher preforming zones with higher sale densities and profitability may be assigned more space, while lower preforming zones may receive less space.
- ITZA Calculation: The ITZA calculation involves quantifying the usable sales floor area allocated to each zone or department. This calculation takes into consideration the floor area dedicated to displaying merchandise, including fixtures, shelves, displays, and walkways. It excludes non-sales areas like storage rooms, offices, or employee break rooms.
The ITZA approach helps retailers optimise their store layouts, product displays, and overall space utilisation. By allocating more space to high preforming zones and optimising the arrangement of merchandise, retailers can enhance the customer experience, maximise sales potential, and improve profitability.
It’s important to note that ITZA is just one of the methods used in retail space allocation and zoning. Other approaches such as Gross Leasable Area (GLA) or Net Leasable Area (NLA), may also be employed, depending on the specific needs and objectives of the retailed and the industry standards in a particular region.
Overall, ITZA provides a framework for retailers to strategically allocate space within their stores based on sales density and profitability, enabling them to optimise their retail environments and enhance business performance.
International Property Measurement Standards
The international Property Measurement Standards (IPMS) is a set of globally recognized standards for measuring and reporting property assets. IPMS aims to provide consistency, transparency, and comparability in property measurements, allowing better understanding, analysis, and decision-making in the real estate industry.
IPMS was developed by a coalition of professional organisations, including the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and other international real estate bodies. The standards cover various types of property, including office buildings, residential properties, retail spaces, industrial properties, and mixed-use developments.
Key features and objectives of IPMS include:
- Consistency and Comparability: IPMS establishes uniform practices to ensure consistency and comparability across different regions and markets. By adopting a common set of measurement standards, property stakeholders can make accurate and meaningful comparisons between properties and markets, facilitating better decision-making.
- Transparency and Disclosure: IPMS promotes transparency and disclosure by providing clear guidelines for property measurement and reporting. This helps investors, valuers, occupiers, and other stakeholders to understand the basis on which property measurements are determined, ensuring greater transparency in property transactions and valuations.
- Flexibility and Adaptability: IPMS allows for flexibility and adaptation to the local market practices and regulations. While providing a global framework, the standards can be applied and adjusted to suit specific regional or national requirements, ensuring their relevance and applicability across different jurisdictions.
- Comprehensive Measurement: IPMS covers a wide range of property attributes and relevant dimensions. The standards provide guidance on how to measure these attributes accurately, ensuring comprehensive and consistent property measurement practices.
- Alignment with Finacial Reporting: IPSMS aims to align property measurements with financial reporting standards, such as the Internation Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). This alignment improves the consistency and accuracy of property reporting in financial statements, enhancing the quality of financial information.
The adoption of IPMS by industry professionals, organisations, and regulatory bodies promotes transparency, efficiency, and accuracy in property transactions, valuations, and financial reporting. It helps facilitate better decision making, risk management, and investment analysis by providing a common language for property category accurately.
Overall, IPMS serves as a global framework for consistent and transparent property measurement practices, promoting a more robust and reliable real estate industry.
What is International Property Measurement Standards used for and who would use it?
The International Property Measurement Standards (IMPS) are used for various purposes in the real estate industry, and they are primarily utilised by professionals and organisations involved in property measurement, valuation, reporting, and analysis. The key uses and stakeholders of IPMS include:
- Property Professionals: IPMS provides a standardized methodology for property measurement, enabling surveyors, valuers, architects, and other property professionals to conduct consistent and accurate measurements. It ensures that property measurements are reliable and comparable, allowing professionals to provide reliable valuation reports, space planning, and property management services.
- Investors and Financial Institutions: Investors, leaders, and financial institutions rely on accurate property measurements for investment analysis, loan underwriting, and risk assessment. IPMS enhances transparency and comparability in property information, enabling better financial decisions-making and risk management.
- Occupiers and Tenants: IPMS benefits occupiers and tenants by providing consistent and transparent information about the size and dimensions of properties. It allows them to make informed decisions when leasing or purchasing space, negotiating lease terms, and planning their operations within a property.
- Developers and Builders: IMPS assists developers and builders in designing, constructing, and marketing properties. The standards help optimise space utilisation, comply with regulations, and accurately represent the size and features of properties to potential buyers or tenants.
- Regulators and Standard-Setting Bodies: Regulators and standard-setting bodies may adopt IPMS as a reference for establishing local measurement guidelines and regulations. They can use IPMS to ensure consistency and accuracy in property management practices with their jurisdictions.
- Real Estate Market Analysis and Research: IMPS enables consistent and comparable data for real estate market analysis and research. Researchers, market analysts, and economist utilise IPMS-compliant data to analyse market trends, supply and demand dynamics and property performance across different locations.
- Property Owners and Managers: Property owners and managers benefit from IPMS by ensuring accurate property information, effective space management, and lease administration. IPMS provides a standardised basis for measuring rentable and leasable areas, optimising space utilisation, and facilitating transparent communication with tenants.
By providing a globally recognised and standardised approach to property measurement, IPMS enhances transparency, comparability, and confidence in property transactions, valuations, and reporting. It enables stakeholders to make informed decisions, promote market efficiency, and contributes to the overall credibility and professionalism of the real estate industry.